Sunday, February 9, 2020

The CTV Building in Christchurch, Collapse During the Earthquake of Assignment

The CTV Building in Christchurch, Collapse During the Earthquake of That Date - Assignment Example Hence it gave rise to such circumstances. A number of defects relating to the design had been identified which had led to this collapse. The construction of any building requires technical knowhow relating to architecture and along with that precision. Construction Manager: Along with the chief engineer, the manager of the entire process is equally responsible. Management of an architectural project requires technical knowledge along with practical experience. A person who lacks such skills should not approach such large scale projects. A little deeper encounter with the entire issue reveals the fact that there was lack in proper strategy formulation, planning, implementation and maintenance which are essential for any project to be successful. Architect of the building: Post earthquake records revealed the fact that there were flaws in the entire designing of the building (Fur and Deutsche, 2007, p.11). The asymmetric design was the reason why the building collapsed so easily. A pro per earthquake resistant building must have the roofs and floor slabs in the horizontal planes. The columns and beams should have been properly interconnected ensuring strength of the building. Operations Manager: This person is responsible for the selection of the materials which are necessary for the construction. The materials should be shock resistant in order to be categorized as safe materials. The safety level of the building would depend on the selection of the materials. The building safety and lives of people would be at stake if they are not protected against the tremors of an earthquake in an earthquake prone zone. Junior Engineers: The junior engineers who were responsible for the project were not capable. They were sent for approval of the project.... The report analyses the reasons and the people involved in the process. It finds out that if these people had been a little more careful this situation could have been avoided. The engineers on their part had approved projects that were not viable. It can also be concluded that before the project was undertaken there was lack of strict vigilance and the proper process of project approval was not undertaken. There were flaws in selection of the team members, the team of engineers, the materials supplied failed to match up with the standards and the improper execution of the constructions mechanisms can be cited as the reasons behind the collapse. The safety standards were not followed in spite the building falling within an earthquake prone area. The regular checks of the vigilance team and from the government were not undertaken and so there was no one to clear the doubt situation. Although the building had good insurance coverage the people working inside the building were not train ed with adequate training which may come in handy in situations of disasters. The above mentioned key role players could have prevented the entire situation only provided each party did their work diligently. Here we can see that there is negligence and disregard among all the key role players which collectively contributed to the occurrence of the building devastation. Proper audit and investigation before the occurrence of the incident would have stopped it from happening and saved more lives.

Fundamentals of Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fundamentals of Economics - Essay Example Aside from prices, there are a host of factors that may either push for an upward or downward effect on the volume of demand or supply exerted towards the market. Among the determinants for demand include taste and preference of consumers, income level of consumers, availability of substitute products, and population. For supply, the determinants include, but are not limited to, production cost, taxes and subsidies, number of producers or suppliers, available technology, and prices of substitutes. Applying some principles in marketing, demand can further be described or categorized as latent demand, and effective demand. While consumers may want to have a number of units of a particular commodity constituting the latent demand for that commodity, only consumers who have the capacity to pay for that commodity at a price level producers are willing to supply will constitute the effective demand. Elasticity, on the other hand, can be simply defined as the degree of change on the volume of demand or supply of a particular product in relation to changes in the behavior of its determinants. For example, a product that has an elastic demand is a product whose volume or quantity being demanded in the market has increased tremendously due to a lower tag price offer in the market. At the same time, such product with elastic demand would have a tremendous decrease in volume of quantity demanded should its price suddenly becomes a bit more than what it previously offered to the market. In other words, elasticity can be described or defined as the degree of changes in the volume of quantity demanded or supplied given the degree of changes in its determinants. Elasticity determined by changes in prices has been referred to as price elasticity, as shown in the example that has been mentioned above. Demand or supply behavior that

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Writing a Persuasive Essay Topic - Using the New York Times

Writing a Persuasive Essay Topic - Using the New York TimesMany people find themselves in a tight spot when they have to write a persuasive essay topic, for many reasons. Perhaps it is because you have not written a persuasive essay topic in a while, or maybe it is because you have written too many, and it seems that you cannot remember which ones you wrote last week, let alone the previous week.In fact, the New York Times, in a recent poll, revealed that ninety-seven percent of all their recent articles were written by writers that they had hired at a job fair. It is quite amazing when you consider that at these job fairs, the article writers are completely unqualified, and are considered unreliable. After that poll was conducted, the Editor of the New York Times made an important change to their hiring process, and now they use a technical quality control checker, and a soft-copy editor.You may be thinking that this makes sense, but in actuality, it is not a good thing, because you might be hiring writing from someone who has not actually written an essay topic, and who was only assigned an essay topic. So, how do you find someone who has not written an essay topic before? Well, you need to do some research. If you go to your local library, or your local college library, and find reference books that cover persuasive essay topics, you will have quite a bit of information to work with.But you do not want to rely on just one book, as this will not help you locate these powerful essay topics. A comprehensive reference book on persuasive essay topics is required. You can search online, but you need to keep your eyes open for references that cover much more than what your local library has to offer. After all, if you do not have any reference materials, you will not be able to find these types of essays.The best resource to use when you need to get these types of essay topics is the New York Times, and other major newspapers that specialize in persuasion, such as the Wall Street Journal, the Boston Globe, the Los Angeles Times, and the Washington Post. Most of these news outlets have articles on their front page, and you can usually find some on the inside pages, if you are lucky.As you learn more about old persuasive essay topics, you can use that information to put together a sample of your own, so that you can make changes in order to make it even more persuasive. For example, if you wrote about the group of women at the theater, and you learned that the group of women loved the talk show, you can rewrite that paragraph as follows:'The former lover of a woman in a distinguished history class got so mad at her that she confronted her as she was leaving the classroom, denouncing her for the rest of the class period.' Now, it could be said that all you have done is recycled an old argument, and you have started your reader off thinking that they already know what you have in mind. Or you can replace that particular paragraph with something l ike this: 'After the woman in the distinguished history class got so mad at her, she confronted her as she was leaving the classroom, denouncing her for the rest of the class period.'

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Happiness Essay Writing Reviews & Tips

Happiness Essay Writing Reviews & Tips Facts, Fiction and Happiness Essay Writing You will be amazed at the sum of little mistakes you run into. It would be great to have a good deal of money but it dosnt change the individual you're. There are a lot of success stories of individuals going from rags to riches and people attempt to follow along with their footsteps and do the identical thing. On the other hand it may be argued that money does bring a certain quantity of happiness. Money is a required thing but it's not the thing to make us happy. Can it buy happiness essay should be usually written in an argumentative manner in order to convince people to think the way you do. It satisfies the physical needs of the person, but people need to understand that happiness is not physical. In reality, there was approximately the exact same degree of happiness of both rich and poor sorts of people. To conclude, you've got to sacrifice some time that could be spent making money to develop strong relationships with your family members and friends. For that reason, it would be far better for someone to make their hobby, the thing he really loves doing the most to turn into his true job. Firstly, it's hard for a man to be happy if he or she doesn't have a safe place to reside and enough food to eat. The entire intention of essays is to analyse your ideas and judgments about a certain topic and how well you're ready to structure them in the shape of words on paper. First of all, think over this issue on which you've got to attempt your essay. Good English essay writing pretty much expects that you've got good reference material too. Our writers have much experience and understand how to make any sort of paper sound just amazing. Although you're going to be writing to show that you know much about the English language, your language needs to be easy and right to the point. Choosing Happiness Essay Writing Is Simple Happiness is essential in life. To be guide by love in all of the action is the secret to happiness. Things that bring us happiness, more frequently than not, involve some quantity of pain. It is very important to our life because it can make our life meaningful. World Peace A noble aspiration, but you may want to begin smallsetting unrealistic goals might be a happiness deterrent. The idea of happiness has multifaceted are not simple to organize content. Defining happiness is no easy feat. Experimenting with key happiness factors will help you discover the combination which works for you. The Battle Over Happiness Essay Writing and How to Win It When you think about the simple fact you have words that sound the exact same, but have very different meanings never mind the simple fact which you have several diverse styles of English to contend with, from American, British, Canadian and everything between, you are aware that it can be rather the challenge to communicate effectively. Of what use is the monumental wealth in your treasury or the big bank-balance in case you do not enjoy this, or utilize it in the welfare of others. Money might be able to buy you health equipment and surgeons but it can't cure all illnesses. Introducing Ha ppiness Essay Writing You may have to write the greatest argumentative can money buy happiness essay on a lot of occasions. The absolute most detailed notion of happiness and its connection to money was made by Abraham Maslow. While it can result in happiness, the process of gaining it hinders your relationships with others. To submit a good paper on whether it can buy happiness, you should understand basic principles to avoid common pitfalls that may be lurking. If you're deciding on happiness in success then you have to keep attempting to succeed if once failed. Secondly, the best joy in life is usually found in shared experiences with family members and friends, and it's rare to obtain an individual who's content to reside in full isolation. As you concentrate on bringing meaning to your life, make sure to set realistic, attainable objectives. Successful life can result in happiness. Sometimes poverty, adversity and sufferings might help you to bring out the finest in you. If you get a positive attitude and are determined to locate the tiny happiness of life, you're destined to be jolly. Even though a lot of people assume that happiness is important than success, while other felt hay an individual can't be happy unless he's successful, I do believe that happiness play a significant part in our life and I feel that it's the secret to success. The area of happiness may not be measured by any scale.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Things You Should Know About Banana Girl College Essay

Things You Should Know About Banana Girl College Essay Ok, I Think I Understand Banana Girl College Essay, Now Tell Me About Banana Girl College Essay! Also, a number of them will secretly be robots. Most significantly, I was driven to find out more about the world I lived in every single day. Time is your enemy Time is likewise an important issue. I'm a five-foot-tall female physicist. Everyone looks blissfully unaware our generation is the one who may shape the image of our minority. Details of Banana Girl College Essay We offer fantastic value for money throughout the year. Together with a rigorous curriculum, I am hoping to play collegiate softball. And it feels damn great to be in a position to say the exact same for myself. Have a browse through our website, or speak to our support staff today to begin the ball rolling. What Does Banana Girl College Essay Mean? To do so, you have to get away from simply summarizing events. Since I mentioned before, it's most effective to get started with brainstorming. From that point, get out a bit of paper and begin brainstorming ideas for each. Don't decide on a prompt just because you think answering it is going to force you to sound impressive. Use the topics which are not so banal. Narrow your choices to a couple topics, and then brainstorm for a couple of minutes about each topic. High potassium foods like bananas ought to be consumed in moderation when taking beta-blockers. Bland foods like apple sauce and bananas are suggested for diarrhea therapy. One serving of banana is regarded as about 126 grams. Bananas also include a lot of fiber. They should be stored at room temperature. Some people might have an allergy to bananas. This informative article is going to take a look at the possible health benefits of bananas, including improving heart health and promoting regularity. Beta-blockers, a kind of medication most commonly prescribed for heart disease, can result in potassium levels to rise in the blood. Subsequently, healthy kidneys make sure the correct quantity of potassium is kept within the body. Of course we appreciate that you desire the finest academic paper writers at the lowest prices. We've got a lot of professional writers eagerly awaiting to finish the order in the maximum quality and within almost no time! If you want to have that perfect score on your academic papers, you are going to be compelled to devote days or weeks. The most suitable amount is most likely somewhere between both. And don't dare ask a lightskinned girl if she's mixed due to her beauty and her lightness, like you cannot be mixed, dark, and beautiful all at one time. We're a couple of of the few folks not wearing costumes. By this time, you will have become an authority in baking a chocolate block. This will guarantee that the bar doesn't stick to the pan during the baking procedure. To frost the cake, it has to have cooled completely as any endeavor in order to add frost to a warm bar will end in the frost melting. Next, the conventional pan must be greased well with cooking spray. Check on the progress every five minutes to make sure the cake doesn't burn. It is often associated with celebrations.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Retaliation and assassination Essay Example for Free

Retaliation and assassination Essay Why might many Palestinian youths of your own age want to join terrorist organisations such as Hamas or Islamic Jihad, despite the danger of capture, retaliation and assassination? What choices would these youths have to consider in deciding to join such an organisation? The conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis has lasted since before 100BC. The conflict is over which people really should own the state of Israel. Should it be split 50% 50% or should the Palestinians be made to leave. Israel is the link between the different continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. Without this connection trade may not take place as easily. The country gets most of its money comes from the oil trade. Oil is one of the worlds most important resources and so, Israel is needed to keep many other countries running. This means that Europeans Africans and Asians will always be there. Israel is also in various different industries such as cars, wines, farming and the chemical industry. Both the Palestinians and the Israelis hold historic claims to the land, these date back to biblical times. The biblical character of Abraham is the most significant to this long-term dispute because both the Palestinian and Jewish races descended from him. Abraham had two sons, Isaac and Ishmael. Each of these sons spawned a different new race. From Isaac, came the Jewish and from Ishmael, came Arabic. The Jewish have suffered a great deal of persecution throughout their era in history. Christian blamed them for the death of Christ, the worst sin ever. Most recently were the events of World War II. The Jews suffered the most attacks and were used as puppets by Hitler for the outbreak and the consequences of the war. Many were executed in death camps such as Auschwitz during one of the biggest mass genocides in history, the Holocaust. The Jews were also persecuted during Biblical times because the Egyptians enslaved them. God promised the Jews that he would lead them back to their promised homeland, Israel. God sent Moses to help the Jews who returned them to Israel where they settled in around 1200BC. The Jewish race emigrated throughout the world for years and years. They were a dispersed race who no longer had a homeland of their own. However, many remained resolute as to the fact that they were Jewish and were proud of it. The Jews experienced a great deal of persecution over the years, throughout the world as I have said before hand. After this, it was decided that the Jews should have their own homeland. This was to return to their homeland of Israel. They were determined on returning to this homeland that can be seen in their final prayer that is used to conclude the annual Jewish festival, the Day of Atonement. The prayer reads Next year in Jerusalem. This proved their aspirations of a return to their homeland. However, the Jews were faced with a very demanding problem. During the 7th century, the Arabic race claimed control of the country and renamed it Palestine. They proclaimed the new Palestine as their own homeland. A man called Theodor Herzl started a project to form the first Zionist movement. The aim of his new movement was to establish a mass Jewish settlement in Palestine. However, he was to fail to meet this requirement. He became the president of this New World congress of Zionists. His work was mainly based on persuading the likes of Turkey and Britain to support his cause. Theodor Herzl was successful in gaining the trust of the Turks who eventually sided with the Germans against the Arabs in World War One. However, the British preferred to support the Arabs, who wanted to reduce the support for the countries opposing them. However, the British soon became liable to persuasion. This was due to the money the Jewish race, particularly based in America at the time, had to offer. They had inherited this from previous generations. This would have been of great benefit to the British because the American-based Jews could have persuaded the Americans into the war. As a result of these issues, three agreements were made. * Balfour Declaration- this promised the Jews that their promised land of Israel would be returned to them on two conditions. These were that they persuaded America to join the war and that they maintained the support of Russia as an ally. * The Sykes Picot agreement- this was a secret agreement that was written up between Britain and France in which it was agreed that they would share the land gained when they overthrew the Turkish army. * The McMahon agreement- this promised the support of Lawrence of Arabia in helping the Arabs to revolt against and overthrow the Turks. As a result, they would be given their own, undisputed homeland. These agreements began to cause problems. The League of Nations were handed the responsibility of controlling the land of Palestine, mainly England and France. Both the Arabs and the Jewish to give control of the land to them put pressure upon the League of Nations. The Jewish population of the world saw their chance to return to their homeland of Palestine, which they preferred to call Israel. Many Jews from around the world began to immigrate back to Palestine. This emigration of the Jewish population continued steadily over the next few years. The United Nations suggested a solution to the dispute over the land of Palestine after the Second World War. In 1947, they put forward a proposal to divide the land into three parts. Two of them would be equal and would divide Palestine into an Israeli and Arabic section. However, the capital of Jerusalem would be left as a neutral city. This would city would be controlled by the UN and could therefore be used for important matters of country welfare and economy. This city could be used as an international trade centre for the export of oil. The Jewish accepted this proposal but the Arabs rejected it. The Arabs, in their increasing restlessness with the Israelites, came together from distant lands. They mainly came from nations such as Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Jordan and Iraq. They began to fight with the Jews over certain areas of land. This, along with other factors contributed to the two races having four wars in the space of 25 years. Unluckily for the Arabs, this was a big mistake because The Israelis wealth meant that they could afford the unsurpassed war technology. This money also meant that they could train new soldiers for the next war. Factors such as these gave the Jews the edge in the wars between the races. The Jews came out on top; they were victorious in all four wars. This gave the Israelis a greater degree of control over Palestine. The Jews shortly re-renamed the country of Palestine, Israel. As their control increased because of these wars, started by the Arabs, they forced the Palestinian inhabitants into refugee camps. This is a very real problem that still faces the Palestinians of today. After the wars, a mutual bitter hatred developed between the Palestinians and Israelis over who held the strongest claim to the land. This is a very long-term and real argument that continues to this modern age. The overwhelming power and military force available to the Jews means that the Palestinians are unable to match them. The Palestinians feel that they have been unjustly forced out from their own land. They hope to one day, have the power to overthrow the Jews and return to the very soil of Palestine that is sacred to them and was to their ancestors thousands of years beforehand. The Palestinians were extremely humiliated by the fact that they were unable to stop the Jews from taking their land. The Palestinians were forced to live off of UNWRA rations. The conditions in the refugee camps are appalling and diseases are quick to proliferate. They felt that the western world was turning a blind eye and that they would have to take matters into their own hands. The Palestinians concluded that the UN was failing to direct world issues to an adequate extent. They assumed that the UN were only too quick to become involved with the punishment of Iraq for their problems in dealing with their neighbouring country, Kuwait. The Palestinians found this to be very unfair and increased speculation among the Arab world that they had to deal with their desperate issue individually. This is why the Arab world resorted to terrorism, because it proved a point and raised consciousness as to the problems that the Arabs were facing in Israel. Loads of Arabs also feel as if they are commonly treated as rouges and are made to pay for such massacres as the holocaust and the Dreyfus affair in France. The exhilaration of representing their race may also have appealed to a youth. All of these factors mean that a youth is lead to believe that they have no substitute but to fight. They see themselves as freedom fighters; not terrorists and so are not unenthusiastic to join. They also believe that they have nothing to lose seeing as they are skirmishing to salvage land that has already been lost and that nations such as America and Britain provide the financial support. A huge number of Palestinian youths of approximately 14 years of age would have wanted to join such terrorist organisations as the legendary Hamas. Unavoidably in the wars, the two races had fought; they were pushed out of their homes into refugee camps. Some of these refugee camps have low-grade living environments and diseases can multiply easily. Families will have lived in these refugee camps for long periods of time. This will have been long enough to bring up a child. The Palestinian youths will have been trained the common Arab attitudes towards the Jewish race from a very young age. Such as, their parents would have explained to them how the Israelis took their assets and land was taken away from them. This might have encouraged the youth to fight so that they made up for the four wars. Their parents will have inaugurated their own opinions into their children. These opinions would have been very tough in the heart of the child and they would have tremendous hatred towards the Jews. This would have sparked and cultivated the childrens own perspectives as to how monstrous the Israelis were, like an attitude of hatred towards the Israelis. The youth may have thought that because no one was willing to help their cause they would solve the problem their selves. Adolescents might have felt alienated if they didnt join up to a terrorist organisation. I am sure that peers as well as parents encouraged the youths to sign up to a terrorist organisation like Hamas or Alaxa. Countless youths have been brought up to mistrust the peace talks of their Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat. Numerous families might have chosen to bring up their children in this way because they feel that peace would not solve anything because so many other Palestinians had died in the last couple of years. They might feel that peace is not enough vengeance towards the Israelis who killed many Palestinian figures such as Deir Yassin, Sabra and Shahla. This will just encourage the youth to hate the Palestinians even more. Instead, a Palestinian youth could always take a political route towards the conflict and devastation. Many groups such as the Palestinian Labialisation Organisation (PLO) led by Yasser Arafat offer to help the youths of Palestine. These groups believe in peace, which can be obtained through negotiations and discussions. This process is ideal for the western world because of its loss of threat and the amount of deaths. Members are not at as much risk as those are in terrorist organisations like Hamas or Alaxa. This system has proved to be a great deal more productive than using terrorism because more has been achieved. People still believe that violence is the only way to win. Another way for a youngster to express their aspiration for peace would be to sign their name on the Progressive List for Peace in the Middle East. This aims to achieve teamwork between the Arabs and Israelis in sorting out their differences and accomplishment some kind of declaration over the disputed state of Israel. Families and friends, however, might strive to dissuade a youth from joining a campaign because it is not a way of settling the scores and they would be considered to be traitors. Even though there are six main Arabic terrorist groups, they all share the same common goal. This is to cause fear in order to make a point. The point is to make the world aware of their problems in Israel and to make the worlds citizens think about why people would sacrifice their lives for their Homeland. The six groups are Islamic Jihad, Hamas, Alaxa, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Abu Nidal Organisation. They have different styles of making people hate and fear them throughout the world and because of this they have killed hundreds of innocent people from many different cultures. Israel has a secret service and they can find out who is a member of a terrorist organisation. Prior to a youths decision to join a terrorist group, they must think about their options and their penalties. For instance the first main question they must chose to answer is what organisation do I join. This is a vital question because, if they ever chose to leave, many organisations will decline this request because the person knows so much information on their group. If you would still wanted to quit that organisation they would probably kill you so you dont spread the information. The organisations say that youre with us or against us. People would lose their freedom because people would try to kill them on the streets and they would have to disguise or hide themselves. The last option for a Palestinian youth would be to leave these problems behind and leave Israel. This would not be of any benefit to Israel because it is not solve the problem. This could be a way out for the youths as they are not at jeopardy in the bordering Arab countries such as Egypt. From here, they could support the Arab cause without risk of losing their lives by convincing Europe and other superpowers to join in the struggle for a homeland. The youth could also have a better education and life in such countries as England, France and the USA. Numerous Palestinian youths are faced with such a serious question, should they fight for their country. They have a wide range of choices; none of them are easy. Should they FIGHT In order to solve this conflict, there must be debates in the forthcoming and somebody must take charge of the country. The Palestinian and Israeli youths are the future, maybe if they all stopped fighting the wars would stop. I believe over time the Israelis and Palestinians will merge as one race.

The relationship between theoretical perspectives and early years curriculum models Essay Example for Free

The relationship between theoretical perspectives and early years curriculum models Essay Piaget believed that children are mini scientists and that they create their own understanding in response to their experiences. He also believed that children can self-motivate themselves without the need for rewards. Children are also able to adapt their knowledge to their experiences. Piaget believed that if a child has a comfortable and safe environment that it will allow a child to explore and interact more efficiently. Encouraging recreational sessions will allow a child to recreate real life circumstances. Piaget assessed and monitored children independently and specified that education and free play would educate independent learning rather than being fed knowledge. Piaget believed that a child learns in different stages; Sensorimotor – 0-2 a child understands the world through senses and actions Preoperational – 2-7 a child understands through language and mental images Concrete operational – 7-12 a child understands the world through logical thinking and categories Formal operational – 12 years + a child understands the world through hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning Each stage is broken down further and being able to assess which stage a child is at enables the educator to provide the suitable resources required. Children learn from first hand experiences and educators are only required to offer suitable resources. Although Piaget assessed and monitored children independently this would have had no benefit on teamwork assessments with peers and group activities. Montessori’s theories Montessori theories have supported work in schools for over 100 years. It is a child focused approach of teaching and learning. It is built on specific observations on children between 0-19 years. Independence is a major factor in this theory and environments that are sensibly planned assures that a child will develop physically, psychologically and will advance in independent learning successfully. While being treated equally and justly individuals are taught on their own personal needs which promotes curiosity and passion. As all children are different, Montessori’s main aims for this theory are; †¢ Respect the individual – personal hand-on approach – unforced knowledge †¢ Absorbent mind – exploring freely – ensuring independent learning experiences †¢ Sensitive periods – identify certain growth stages allowing full potential to be met †¢ A prepared environment – readily obtainable resources for specific needs and interests †¢ Auto education – independent learners progress and learn life skills necessary for their future B.F. Skinners theoretical perspective on learning Skinner believed that all behaviour is learnt meaning it can be unlearnt. By replacing the negative behaviour with positive behaviour and response gives a base for learning. By emphasising and modelling good behaviour imitates what is expected. Skinner believed that behaviours happen in school when a child doesn’t understand. Teaching a child to listen teaches them to change their behaviour and reflect. Skinner alleged that children are capable of learning in 2 different ways; 1. Children learn to avoid the negative in the attempt to receive the positive Receiving a reward for positive things increases the likelihood of the child receiving positive reactions 2. Giving a punishment for a negative behaviour also gives a child reason to avoid negative and concentrate on positive Skinner believed that making education enjoyable would be effective in controlling behaviours. He did not believe in punishments but positive reinforcement to adapt and influence students. It is believed that if you want to apply Skinner’s theories into your school you must have; †¢ Positive incentives for behaviour †¢ Reward positive before reprimanding negative †¢ Ensure immediate reward to allow an association †¢ Provide on task feedback †¢ Adapt instructional material and approaches suitably †¢ Children must understand preconditioned skills before moving on †¢ Reinforce positive behaviours J.H Pestalozzi’s theory The Swiss education reformer, influenced by Rousseau, born in Zurich, is known as the most dedicated philosopher to fight for inclusion in schools and reforming the education system. A whole child approach to his methods, Pestalozzi believed that all children should learn through playing and exploring and should be able to peruse their own fun from what interests them personally. Understanding the needs of a child and knowing their background will enhance their performance. 3 main important aspects of Pestalozzi’s methods are; †¢ Head – intelligence and knowledge †¢ Heart – emotions and understanding †¢ Hands – strength and dexterity Pestalozzi’s methods still have huge influences on the modern education system. It is claimed that, in Pestalozzi’s methods, a child learns independently, what happens to special educational needs pupils? These pupils need structure and routine, so arguably his methods were not intended for SEN children and the growing population. 1 in 7 children are recognised as having special needs or a disability, meaning 13.6% would not be educated effectively. Considering most of the national curriculum was formed in 2014, it is questionable, is it up to date enough to meet the demands of the ever-growing change in society? Skinner is the only main figure in history to advise on a combination of social and political interpretations on behaviourism. He formed a theory of what a model society would be like designed around behaviourism. He’s a great promoter of free will and believes that our behaviour is modelled around our setting. Hans Khon believed that Skinners theory of rewards was not a motivation for behaviour but merely a preventive measure for the natural and deliberate behaviours. He also believes that Children should have morals and make their own conscious decisions. Skinner argues the fact that all language is purely learnt but, philosopher Chomsky disagrees and believes that language is inborn and is developed over time. Evidence has recognized that rewards in fact are a great triumph in education. Epraise.com have many success stories and have helped pupils achieve their milestones. It is thought that Skinners discoveries were unreliable as his experiments were performed on animals and not humans. Although this may be the case, engagement on learning is successful through incentives and rewards as this is evident in modern classrooms and has been used in many studies including ‘incredible years’, which is practiced and taught at the school I am currently working in. Rewards are a great incentive, but It is argued that motivation is not found in the absence of rewards. So, is the reward system just disguising natural undesired behaviours? It is argued that if this theory wasn’t working why is it still used today? Do children conform through forced motivation or are they naturally motivated? Skinners theory is actively used in many up-to-date schools around the world and is used successfully. At Heronsbridge school, many of Skinner’s methods are used daily. There is a weekly ‘special mention’ assembly for achievements, a weekly ‘pupil of the week’ award, assemblies play a PowerPoint of great accomplishments caught on camera for the whole school to see, but also instant rewards such as merits and free time are given out for instant recognition of their successes. ‘Incredible years’ is a method of positive reinforcement used at Heronsbridge, where negative behaviour is not acknowledged and rewards for positive behaviours are given as an incentive to encourage and inspire pupils as in Skinner’s philosophy. As this theory works well in Heronsbridge school, it may not work as well in other settings. As Heronsbridge is a SEN school, careful attention is given to the specific requirements to pupil’s individual needs. With regards to Jean Piaget’s theories and Montessori’s, Heronsbridge also pays close attention to the specific need of the child, being educational or medical, and encourages total independence on the pupils who are able. It is argued that, if a child is left to learn independently, then what would happen to children with special educational needs? Being able to plan what is taught will have a huge impact on SEN children. Surely the curriculum should ‘fit’ the child not the child ‘fit’ the curriculum? Heronsbridge implements the Jean Piaget theory of individual assessments. Pupils are frequently monitored and assessed individually through instep testing, LNF testing and annual reviews to ensure pupils are placed in the correct setting the following year, and then targets are set accordingly. No two children have the same targets and as the students are all at different levels of education, Montessori’s theory of mixed aged classes is reinforced throughout the leavers department.